Alzheimer’s disease was recorded for the first time in 1907. It is a progressive neurological disease characterized by memory loss, accompanied by mood changes that lead to the loss of the ability to carry out daily activities. Involves parts of the brain that control thought, memory, and language.
The form of presentation can be either sporadic or familial.
The sporadic Alzheimer's disease is the most frequent form of Alzheimer's disease. It usually appears after 65 years, but it can affect a person of any age. The familial Alzheimer’s disease is an infrequent condition, produced by a genetic mutation. As a result, the person will develop the condition around the '40s or '50s.
Several studies have studied the possible origins of the disease, but the main reason for Alzheimer's disease is not entirely understood.
The factors related to the disease are
Vascular dementia is one of the more frequent types of dementia after Alzheimer, defined as multiples syndromes with a vascular impairment as the primary mechanism. The failure of the vascular regulation leads to a drastic reduction of the blood flow to the brain. The symptoms are the result of this dysfunction.
The prevalence rate of dementia is nine times higher in patients who have had a stroke than in controls. One year after a stroke, 25% of patients develop new-onset dementia.
The prevalence of vascular dementia is higher in men than in women.
Several studies have identified some risk factors related to the development of this disease such as arterial hypertension, smoking habit, high cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease.
Other factors are older age, positive family history of dementia, left-sided lesions, and extensive lesions of the brain, more considerable white matter damage, and strokes in the territory of the thalamic artery and inferior temporal lobes.
Some studies have shown the relation between the presence of apoprotein E and the development of vascular dementia.
There are different types of vascular dementia. The classification is related to the severity of brain damage. It includes mild cognitive impairment, dementia secondary to multi-infarct lesions, single infarct, lacunar infarct, and hemorrhagic lesions as well as the Binswanger disease, subcortical dementia, and combined dementia.
Sometimes authors divided this condition in cortical or subcortical dementia, just taking as consideration the localization of the infarct area.